International Council for Education, Research and Training

Teachers’ Integration Strategies And Challenges On Inclusion In Selected Public Primary Schools In Lagos, Nigeria


Ogwazu, Joyce Ezidiugo1 and Ayannuga, Olayinka Modupe2

1Department of Primary Education Studies

2Department of Educational Psychology

1&2Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, Lagos



Inclusion aligns with the goals of Education for All (EFA). Therefore, the study identified teachers’ integration strategies and challenges on inclusion in selected public primary schools in Mushin Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos, Nigeria. Descriptive Survey Research Design was used for the study. 240 teachers in Basic 1-6 formed the sample size who were randomly selected across 24 public primary schools in the LGA. Ten teachers were randomly selected from each school. Three research questions in a 21-item structured questionnaire titled ‘Teachers’ Integration Strategies and Challenges on Inclusion’ (TISACI) was used to elicit information from respondents. The instrument was modified and validated by experts in Early Childhood and Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability instrument coefficient was at 0.798. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency count, percentages and mean. The study found out that that strategies teachers adopt to integrate pupils include differentiation, use of positive technology tools, giving individualized support and collaborative efforts among others. Also, the study outlined challenges teachers face in inclusion such as having to deal with diverse learners with diverse learning needs, lack of resources and support, poor knowledge in special education among others. The study also found that inclusion has positive impact on pupils’ academic performance as it fosters positive classroom climate, provides individualized support and encourages peer tutoring among others. It was therefore recommended that teachers’ professional training should focus more on tenets of special education, use of differentiation, and diversification of assessment strategies for optimal learning outcome in order to accommodate special needs pupils among others. 


Keywords: Challenges, Inclusion, Integration Strategies, Pupils, Teachers.


Impact Statement


It will help the following:

Teachers: Teachers would have insights, confidence, competence and coping strategies on inclusion.

Pupils: Pupils would have supportive and inclusive learning environment irrespective of learning status.

Parents: Parents would be enlightened more to support inclusion in schools

Curriculum Developers: Curriculum developers would make modifications and give additional support to address the diverse learning needs of all pupils.

Researchers: It would be a yardstick for researchers to work from.

Pre-service teachers: The study would equip future educators with the necessary knowledge and strategies on inclusion. 

Government policies: Government would allow more equal access to quality education for all children, regardless of their status.

Non-Governmental Organizations:  NGOs would provide necessary materials to facilitate inclusion and mainstreaming. 

The Community: Patriotic individuals in the community would voluntarily assist in promoting inclusion.


About Author/s


Joyce Ezidiugo OGWAZU is an academic; a researcher, a seasoned and a professional teacher, certified and licensed by Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN). She has been in teaching profession for over twenty-three (23) years in Nigeria. 

Joyce is a prolific writer who has published four textbooks and 32 credible articles in National Journals and two in International Journals. Her core-values are: hard work, collaboration, truthfulness, discipline, loyalty, enthusiasm and self-confidence.  

 Mrs. Ogwazu is a woman of sound moral ethics, and a disciplinarian to the core. She loves children and has flair for ethical principles. Her hobbies are Reading, Motivational Speaking, listening to motivational Programmes, Listening to Soft Music, and Singing. Joyce belongs to many Professional Bodies which include Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN), Early Childhood Association of Nigeria (ECAN), Women in Colleges of Education (WICE), and Forum for African Women in Education (FAWE).



Dr Olayinka Modupe Ayannuga earned a Ph.D. Applied Psychology (Guidance & Counselling) in 2016 and Masters in Early Childhood Education from Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

She joined the Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, Lagos in December 2005 and became Chief Lecturer on 1st October 2021. Served as Head of the Department of Educational Psychology, from October 2015 till September 2017. Appointed Head of Department, Primary Education Department from January 2020 to October 2021.

She is a Fellow of the Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) and the current Chairperson for Lagos State. Member of the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRC) and the Early Childhood Association of Nigeria.

Dr Ayannuga has published over 40 research articles in various high-profile peer-reviewed journals both local and international, authored four textbooks, and co-authored three reviewed books.


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