International Council for Education, Research and Training

Virtual Classroom Management during COVID-19 in Nigeria: Insights from TPACK

Falore, Oladunni Julianah1

Oredein, Afolakemi Olasumbo2

1&2Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Arts & Education Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria


This study explores virtual classroom management in the context of Nigeria, a developing country that faces challenges in adopting technology for teaching and learning activities. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated these challenges, causing a breakdown in physical teaching and learning activities. To address this, the study employs constructivism theory to examine virtual classroom management and strategies for effective implementation. The study uses a qualitative approach to review the concept of virtual classroom and virtual classroom management in Nigeria, strategies to manage the virtual classroom as well as the merits and demerits of virtual classroom learning. The findings highlight the challenges of virtual teaching and learning activities and suggest solutions such as in-service training, workshops, and seminars on digital leadership training for school leaders, teachers, and students. Additionally, parents are encouraged to support their children’s learning by making their smartphones available and monitoring usage, while the government is advised to allocate more funds towards improving digital technology in secondary schools. Overall, the study underscores the importance of constructivism theory in guiding effective virtual classroom management in Nigeria.

Keywords: Virtual classroom, Virtual Classroom-management, Covid-19

About Authors

Falore, Julianah, Oladunni, is currently a doctoral student of Educational Management at the Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. She is an astute researcher and who has extensive administrative experience spanning over 3 decades and recently retired as a Deputy Director from the Federal Ministry of Education, Nigeria.

Her zeal and passion for knowledge made her bagged Master’s degree in Educational Management from the University of lbadan as well as a bachelor’s degree in History and Education from the University of Port- Harcourt. Her efforts to contribute to knowledge made her to keep on researching and publishing her findings in reputable seasoned articles in learned journals, attending conferences on diverse topics in the area of Educational Management, shaping perspectives and establishing contacts with other researchers and specialists across borders. Visit her on -0008-1356-2914


Professor AfolakemiOlasumboOredein is a Professor in the Faculty of Arts & Education, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria, and is currently the Provost of Postgraduate College. Her area of specialization is Educational Management (Leadership) and Statistics. She is a chartered member of the Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria (IPMN), International Council for Education Research and Training (ICERT), and Kappa Delta Pi (KDP Nigeria Chapter). Also, she is a member of the following organisations; Higher Education in & Policy Network (HERPNET), Global Education Network (GEN), World Education Research Association (WERA), Nigerian Association of Educational and Planning and Administration (NAEAP), mention a few. Prof. Oredein is the Editor-in-Chief of some journals like; African Higher Education Review (AHER)  an online International Journal, and the Journal of Capital Development in Behavioural Sciences (JOCADEBS). She has published widely, attended, and presented papers at local and international academic conferences. She presented her Inaugural Lecture on Good Leadership for National Development: The Inevitable Fraternal Twins and Irresistible Skills as Matters Arising’ September 2016. She is from Ogun State, Nigeria; married to Rev’dOpeOluwaOredein and blessed with children. Visit her on; ;;


Amie-Organ. Omunakwe. F, (2020) Perceived influence of teacher’s quality on students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools in Port- Harcourt Metropolis River- state Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social and Science Education Research 8 (3) 146-161

Anekwe. U, (2017) Impact of virtual classroom learning on students of Nigeria Federal and State Universities. European Journal of Research and reflection in Educational Sciences

Catabus. M.G, Romeu. T, Colas. J. F. (2020) Basic digital competencies for unemployed citizens: Conceptual framework and training model. Cogent Education 7(1) 1748469 2020. 1748469

Gomez- Pablos, Matarranz., V. B, Casado- Aranda, Otto, L. A (2020) Teachers digital competencies in higher education: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 9(8). 1-16

Hjukse. S, Aagaard. T, Bueie. A.A, Moser. T., & Vika. K. S. (2020) Digitalization in teacher education: How professional digital competence is addressed in different subjects. Acta Didactic Norden 14 (10, 27 siders. https// adno.8023

Iheanyinchukwu. W, (2020) Managing teachers’ digital competence for Quality Instructional delivery in secondary schools in Nigeria. African Journal of Educational Research and Development (AJERD) 11(20) 116-120

Karunaweera, A.S, & Wah, L. K. (2021). Measuring digital competence: an explanatory study mapping digital competence profiles in Sri Lankan English language teachers. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education 36 (1), 93-112 https//

Koehler, M.J& Mishra, P (2009) What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge? Contemporary issues in Technological and Teacher Education 9 (1) 60-70.

Konig, J, Jager-Biela, D. J & Glutsch, N. (2020) Adapting to online teaching during COVID_19 school closure: teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany.  European Journal of Teacher Education, 43 (4), 608_622 https// 10.1080/02619768.2120.1809650.

Liew, Y.P, Lim, L.& Tai, H.T (2021). A study on student’s experiences in virtual classroom during COVID_19, Retrieved from https//

MINEC.O(2021). Plan Nacional de Competencies Digitales. Retrieved from https:// portal. Mineco.gob. es/ Recur sos Articulo/ mineco/ minis terio/ fiche ros/ 210127 plan nacio nal de compe tenci as- digit ales,

Scroll to Top