International Council for Education, Research and Training

Can There Be Equality And Inclusion In A Deprived Learning Environment? The Power Of Educational History And A Rethink Of Dr. B. R Ambedkar’s Envisionment For Nigeria’s Education System

Idika, Delight Omoji

Institute of Education, University of Calabar- Nigeria




The major part of this research is a historiographical type of qualitative or narrative study, aimed at linking the good works of Dr Ambedkar to the ingredients that make for success in today’s society. In order to achieve this purpose, the study engaged a systematic review of both primary and secondary data with a view to critically appraise and summarize as well as to reconcile the evidence involved with the preset research. The anchor theories were Vygotsky’s Defectology theory (1993) and Deprivation theory of Gurr (1970) which both formed the foundation on which the operating concepts of equality and inclusion in special education are laid, and commonly point to social attribution (of society) as the source of creation of discrimination. Some key concepts – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s envisioned equality and inclusion in education, learning environment and deprivation were explained under conceptual and contextual issues. Impact of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s vision on nations and international bodies including NGOs as they relate to inclusive education were meticulously reviewed with the aim to raise an answer to the question that gave rise to the study. The paper concludes by promoting the envisaged view of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as what must be upheld in all countries particularly the least developing countries like Nigeria, as a means of not only achieving a sustained social, economic, political adjusted society that has educationally empowered persons and community through equitable access and inclusion but as a charted course to arrive at SDG4. Recommendations among others include that government should make efforts to provide education with ingredients of equality and inclusion to every learner at all levels of education to achieve development. Increased government passion for inclusive education provision, learning technology with improved learning environment, funding, teacher training among other educational needs particularly for the inclusive learners. And concluded that Since Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s vision has become the national and international vision for the global community, governments should have no option of making her education responsive to current global demands to engender sustainable development.

Keywords: Historiology, Cultural society, Ambedkar’s lens, Equality, Inclusion, Learning environment, Rethink, Education system, Nigeria.

Impact statement

Dr. Delight Omoji Idika’s exceptional research reexamines Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s vision for Nigeria’s education system, challenging traditional notions and urging a complete overhaul. Her study exposes the harsh realities of a deprived learning environment plagued by inequality and exclusion. Emphasizing education’s potential as a tool for empowerment and social change, she makes a strong case for a more inclusive and egalitarian system to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Acknowledging historical and cultural contexts influencing education, Idika demonstrates that transformative education requires reimagining traditional models. Her work serves as a wake-up call for policymakers and educators to collaborate for a just and equitable society through education. As a timely reminder of education’s transformative power in a world where it is often considered a privilege, her research calls for collaborative efforts towards a more inclusive and empowering system. This study will leave a lasting impact on Nigeria’s educational field and beyond.

About author

Dr Delight Omoji Idika is a Senior Lecturer from the Department of Educational Foundations who is currently serving on Secondment (as Senior Research Fellow) to coordinate the research needs at the Institute of Education,
University of Calabar, Nigeria.

She is an innovative Education Researcher and has vested interests in Educational Research (R/D) & Statistics, Assessment, Measurement &
Evaluation. She also teaches Philosophical and Historical Foundations of Education, Economics, Office and Business Management alongside intense supervision, training and mentoring of young researchers at the undergraduate and post graduate student levels. She is an award member of ICERT, member of several other professional associations, and has published extensively in local and international Journals
and Books to her credit.

Dr Delight can be contacted at email:
Orcid id:
Google scholar:


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