International Council for Education, Research and Training

Examining The Role of Soil in Promoting Sustainable Development and Achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Renshu1, Juneja, Poonam2 and Meenakshi3

1,3Baba Mastnath University, Rohtak

2Maitreyi College, Delhi


Soil is a critical component of terrestrial ecosystems, playing an invaluable role in supporting plant growth, regulating water and nutrient cycles, filtering pollutants, and providing habitat for soil organisms. However, increasing pressures from human activities, including intensive agriculture, deforestation, urbanization, and climate change are degrading soils across the world. Therefore, sustainable management of soil resources is imperative to ensure continued provisioning of ecosystem services, promote sustainable development outcomes, and help us to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper reviews literature across multiple disciplines to examine the vital links between soil and realization of the SDGs. Soil properties influence productivity and food security, water availability and quality, climate regulation through carbon storage, biodiversity conservation, and human health. Degraded soils undermine these ecosystem services, exacerbating poverty, hunger, and inequality. Research shows ecosystem-based approaches that prioritize soil health, including conservation agriculture, agroecology, and regenerative systems, can sustainably intensify agriculture while restoring multi-functionality. Additionally, nature-based solutions utilizing plant-soil interactions for restoration have demonstrated cost-effectiveness. Achieving land degradation neutrality is now an explicit target under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), emphasizing the need to scale soil-focused initiatives within the SDG framework. Therefore, protecting and restoring global soil assets can serve as a nexus in policy frameworks to simultaneously advance progress across multiple SDGs.


 Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), Soil, Environment

Impact Statement


This research systematically analyzed relevant studies linking soil health to ecosystem services like climate regulation, water security, food production, biodiversity protection, and human livelihoods and well-being. Soils underpin most SDG targets, yet present degradation trends severely harm terrestrial ecosystems. The evidence suggests that degraded soils reduce production, intensify climate change, and increase poverty and malnutrition in emerging regions. Soil erosion, salinization, and fertility reductions indirectly harm coastal conservation and water supplies. Sustainable soil management methods including conservation agriculture, agroecology, and regenerative farming systems provide many benefits over input-intensive methods, according to research. Sustainable organic matter, biological nutrient cycling, and soil biodiversity enable resilient, climate-smart agriculture for local and global communities.

About Author

Renshu, Research Scholar, Baba Mastnath University Rohtak.

Renshu Deshwal is a dynamic individual embarking on her journey in the field of physics, with a passion for unraveling the mysteries of the universe. Her academic journey began with a science graduation B.Sc. (Hons.) from Panjab university and Master’s degree fueling her curiosity and love for understanding the fundamental laws governing our world.  Currently pursuing Ph.D. (Physics) at Baba Mastnath University. Throughout her educational pursuits, she has gained valuable research experience and honed her analytical skills. She is committed to pushing the boundaries of knowledge and contributing to the advancement of science. She relishes the challenges that lie ahead, eager to make a meaningful impact in the realm of physics. As of now, she has attended 1 National and 4 international conferences, seminars and published one paper and Poster.

Dr. Poonam Juneja is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physics at Maitreyi College. She holds excellent and practical knowledge of the subject with 32 plus years’ experience. She has more than 15 publications in National & International journals and has participated and presented papers and posters in more than 70 conferences and seminars. Dr Juneja is a Life Member of Academic Bodies: Indian Association of Physics Teachers (IAPT); Centre for Education Growth and Research (CEGR); Indraprastha Vigyan Bharti (VIBHA), Delhi.


Dr. Meenakshi is now working as Assistant professor (Physics), Department of Sciences, Baba Mastnath University, Rohtak. An innovative and Knowledgeable professional having 15 plus years academic experience. Proficient in developing new lessons and activities to expand learning opportunities, Extensive participation on committees and extra-curricular activities, Excellent knowledge of subject and also have great practical knowledge. She has more than 18 publications in National and International journals and attended more than 16 conferences.



  1. Tilman, D.; Cassman, K.G.; Matson, P.A.; Naylor, R.; Polasky, S. Agricultural Sustainability and Intensive Production Practices. Nature 2002, 418, 671–677.  

  2. Telo da Gama, J.; Loures, L.; Lopez-Piñeiro, A.; Quintino, D.; Ferreira, P.; Nunes, J.R. Assessing the Long-Term Impact of Traditional Agriculture and the Mid-Term Impact of Intensification in Face of Local Climatic Changes. Agriculture 2021, 11, 814.  

  3. Francaviglia, R.; Almagro, M.; Vicente-Vicente, J.L. Conservation Agriculture and Soil Organic Carbon: Principles, Processes, Practices and Policy Options. Soil. Syst. 2023, 7, 17.  

  4. Cherlet, M.; Hutchinson, C.; Reynolds, J.; Hill, J.; Sommer, S.; von Maltitz, G. World Atlas of Desertification Rethinking Land Degradation and Sustainable Land Management; Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2018; ISBN 978-9-27975-350-3. 

  5. Tomlinson, I. Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK. J. Rural Stud. 2013, 29, 81–90.  

  6. Dong, X.; Martin, J.B.; Cohen, M.J.; Tu, T. Bedrock Mediates Responses of Ecosystem Productivity to Climate Variability. Commun. Earth Environ. 2023, 4, 114.  

  7. Zheng, W.; Rao, C.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Jiang, X.; Xu, Y.; Hu, L.; Chen, Y.; Liang, X.; Yan, W. Changes in the Soil Labile Organic Carbon Fractions Following Bedrock Exposure Rate in a Karst Context. Forests 2022, 13, 516.  

  8. Wang, X. Managing Land Carrying Capacity: Key to Achieving Sustainable Production Systems for Food Security. Land 2022, 11, 484.  

  9. Wijerathna-Yapa, A.; Pathirana, R. Sustainable Agro-Food Systems for Addressing Climate Change and Food Security. Agriculture 2022, 12, 1554.  

  10. Weil, R.R.; Brady, N.C. The Nature and Properties of Soils, 15th ed.; Pearson Prentice Hall: Harlow, UK; London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2017; ISBN 978-1-29216-223-2. 

  11. Rahman, S.; Ali, A.; Raihan, A. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems as a Mitigation Strategy of Climate Change: A Case Study from Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Adv. Environ. Eng. Res. 2022, 3, 1–13.  

  12. Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Liu, S.; Xiao, J.; Zhao, W.; Chen, J.; Alexandrov, G.; Cao, Y. Decipher Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics and Driving Forces across China Using Machine Learning. Glob. Chang. Biol. 2022, 28, 3394–3410.  

  13. Mansoor, S.; Farooq, I.; Kachroo, M.M.; Mahmoud, A.E.D.; Fawzy, M.; Popescu, S.M.; Alyemeni, M.N.; Sonne, C.; Rinklebe, J.; Ahmad, P. Elevation in Wildfire Frequencies with Respect to the Climate Change. J. Environ. Manag. 2022, 301, 113769.  

  14. Ahmad Rather, R.; Bano, H.; Ahmad Padder, S.; Perveen, K.; Al Masoudi, L.M.; Saud Alam, S.; Ho Hong, S. Anthropogenic Impacts on Phytosociological Features and Soil Microbial Health of Colchicum luteum L. an Endangered Medicinal Plant of North Western Himalaya. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2022, 29, 2856–2866.  

  15. De Girolamo, A.M.; Barca, E.; Leone, M.; Lo Porto, A. Impact of Long-Term Climate Change on Flow Regime in a Mediterranean Basin. J. Hydrol. Reg. Stud. 2022, 41, 101061.  

  16. Yang, G.; Ryo, M.; Roy, J.; Lammel, D.R.; Ballhausen, M.-B.; Jing, X.; Zhu, X.; Rillig, M.C. Multiple Anthropogenic Pressures Eliminate the Effects of Soil Microbial Diversity on Ecosystem Functions in Experimental Microcosms. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 4260.  

  17. Shen, L.; Cheng, G.; Du, X.; Meng, C.; Ren, Y.; Wang, J. Can Urban Agglomeration Bring “1 + 1 > 2Effect”? A Perspective of Land Resource Carrying Capacity. Land. Use Policy 2022, 117, 106094.  

  18. Devkota, K.P.; Devkota, M.; Rezaei, M.; Oosterbaan, R. Managing Salinity for Sustainable Agricultural Production in Salt-Affected Soils of Irrigated Drylands. Agric. Syst. 2022, 198, 103390.  

  19. Guterres, A. The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020; United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs: New York, NY, USA, 2020; pp. 1–64. 

  20. Lal, R.; Bouma, J.; Brevik, E.; Dawson, L.; Field, D.J.; Glaser, B.; Hatano, R.; Hartemink, A.E.; Kosaki, T.; Lascelles, B.; et al. Soils and Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations: An International Union of Soil Sciences Perspective. Geoderma Reg. 2021, 25, e00398.  

  21. Shukla, P.R.; Skea, J.; Calvo Buendia, E.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Pörtner, H.O.; Roberts, D.C.; Zhai, P.; Slade, R.; Connors, S.; Van Diemen, R. IPCC, 2019: Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2019. 

  22. Darouich, H.; Ramos, T.B.; Pereira, L.S.; Rabino, D.; Bagagiolo, G.; Capello, G.; Simionesei, L.; Cavallo, E.; Biddoccu, M. Water Use and Soil Water Balance of Mediterranean Vineyards under Rainfed and Drip Irrigation Management: Evapotranspiration Partition and Soil Management Modelling for Resource Conservation. Water 2022, 14, 554.  

  23. Zhu, J.; Wang, Q.; Qi, W.; Zhao, X.; Xu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, X.; Mak-Mensah, E. Exploring the Potential of Biochar and Mulched Drip Irrigation with Plastic Film on Crop Yields in Water-Stressed Regions: A Global Meta-Analysis. J. Soil. Sci. Plant Nutr. 2023.  

  24. Ramírez, M.; López-Piñeiro, A.; Peña, D.; Rato Nunes, J.; Albarrán, Á.; Muñoz, A.; Gama, J.; Loures, L. Seasonal and Interannual Fluctuation of the Microbial Soil Community in a Maize Field under Long-Term Conservation Agriculture Management. Sustainability 2017, 9, 778.  

  25. Mace, G.M.; Norris, K.; Fitter, A.H. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: A Multilayered Relationship. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2012, 27, 19–26.  

  26. Kaletová, T.; Loures, L.; Castanho, R.A.; Aydin, E.; da Gama, J.T.; Loures, A.; Truchy, A. Relevance of Intermittent Rivers and Streams in Agricultural Landscape and Their Impact on Provided Ecosystem Services—A Mediterranean Case Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2693.  

  27. Telo da Gama, J.; Rato Nunes, J.; Loures, L.; Lopez Piñeiro, A.; Vivas, P. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Variability for Some Edaphic Characteristics of Mediterranean Rainfed and Irrigated Soils. Agronomy 2019, 9, 132.  

  28. MEA. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water; World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2005; ISBN 1-56-973597-2. 

  29. World Bank. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development; The World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2007; ISBN 978-0-82136-807-7. 

  30. Kumar, A.; Burdak, B.; Thakur, H.; Harshavardhan, S.; Nalamala, S. A Review on Role of Micro Irrigation for Modern Agriculture. Pharma Innov. J. 2023, 12, 2585–2589. 

  31. FAO. Status of the World’s Soil Resources: Main Report; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2015; p. 648. 

  32. Loures, L.; Gama, J.; Nunes, J.; Lopez-Piñeiro, A. Assessing the Sodium Exchange Capacity in Rainfed and Irrigated Soils in the Mediterranean Basin Using GIS. Sustainability 2017, 9, 405.  

  33. Dominati, E.; Patterson, M.; Mackay, A. A Framework for Classifying and Quantifying the Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services of Soils. Ecol. Econ. 2010, 69, 1858–1868.  

  34. Lal, R. Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security. Science 2004, 304, 1623–1627.

  35. World Bank World Development Report 2020: Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains; The World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2019; ISBN 1-46-481457-0.

  36. Runge, T.; Latacz-Lohmann, U.; Schaller, L.; Todorova, K.; Daugbjerg, C.; Termansen, M.; Liira, J.; Le Gloux, F.; Dupraz, P.; Leppanen, J.; et al. Implementation of Eco-schemes in Fifteen European Union Member States. EuroChoices 2022, 21, 19–27.  

  37. Latacz-Lohmann, U.; Termansen, M.; Nguyen, C. The New Eco-Schemes: Navigating a Narrow Fairway. EuroChoices 2022, 21, 4–10.  

  38. Morgera, E. SDG 15: Protect, Restore and Promote Sustainable Use of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Sustainably Manage Forests, Combat Desertification, Halt and Reverse Land Degradation, and Halt Biodiversity Loss. In The Cambridge Handbook of Sustainable Development Goals and International Law; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2022; pp. 376–398. 

  39. Ueckerdt, F.; Bauer, C.; Dirnaichner, A.; Everall, J.; Sacchi, R.; Luderer, G. Potential and Risks of Hydrogen-Based e-Fuels in Climate Change Mitigation. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2021, 11, 384–393.  

  40. Redvers, N.; Celidwen, Y.; Schultz, C.; Horn, O.; Githaiga, C.; Vera, M.; Perdrisat, M.; Plume, L.M.; Kobei, D.; Kain, M.C. The Determinants of Planetary Health: An Indigenous Consensus Perspective. Lancet Planet. Health 2022, 6, e156–e163.

  41. WHO. Sustainable Healthy Diets: Guiding Principles; Food & Agriculture Org.: Rome, Italy, 2019; ISBN 9-25-131875-1. 

  42. Hermoso, V.; Carvalho, S.B.; Giakoumi, S.; Goldsborough, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Leontiou, S.; Markantonatou, V.; Rumes, B.; Vogiatzakis, I.N.; Yates, K.L. The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Opportunities and Challenges on the Path towards Biodiversity Recovery. Environ. Sci. Policy 2022, 127, 263–271.  

  43. Miu, I.V.; Rozylowicz, L.; Popescu, V.D.; Anastasiu, P. Identification of Areas of Very High Biodiversity Value to Achieve the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 Key Commitments. PeerJ 2020, 8, e10067.  

  44. Mammola, S.; Riccardi, N.; Prié, V.; Correia, R.; Cardoso, P.; Lopes-Lima, M.; Sousa, R. Towards a Taxonomically Unbiased European Union Biodiversity Strategy for 2030. Proc. R. Soc. B 2020, 287, 20202166.   

  45. Lee, B.X.; Kjaerulf, F.; Turner, S.; Cohen, L.; Donnelly, P.D.; Muggah, R.; Davis, R.; Realini, A.; Kieselbach, B.; MacGregor, L.S. Transforming Our World: Implementing the 2030 Agenda through Sustainable Development Goal Indicators. J. Public Health Policy 2016, 37, 13–31.   

  46. EEA. The European Environment—State and Outlook 2020: Knowledge for Transition to a Sustainable Europe; EEA: Luxembourg, 2019. 

  47. FAO. Pulses: Symbiosis for Life; Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome, Italy, 2016. 

  48. Dorling, D. World Population Prospects at the UN: Our Numbers Are Not Our Problem? In The Struggle for Social Sustainability; Policy Press: Bristol, UK, 2021; pp. 129–154. ISBN 1-44-735612-8. 

  49. Collins, J.; Page, L. The Heritability of Fertility Makes World Population Stabilization Unlikely in the Foreseeable Future. Evol. Human. Behav. 2019, 40, 105–111.  

  50. Bongaarts, J. IPBES, 2019: Summary for Policymakers of the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services; Wiley Online Library: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2019; ISBN 0098-7921. 

  51. Cassman, K.G.; Grassini, P. A Global Perspective on Sustainable Intensification Research. Nat. Sustain. 2020, 3, 262–268.  

  52. Xie, H.; Huang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, Q. Prospects for Agricultural Sustainable Intensification: A Review of Research. Land 2019, 8, 157.  

  53. Bangash, R.F.; Passuello, A.; Sanchez-Canales, M.; Terrado, M.; López, A.; Elorza, F.J.; Ziv, G.; Acuña, V.; Schuhmacher, M. Ecosystem Services in Mediterranean River Basin: Climate Change Impact on Water Provisioning and Erosion Control. Sci. Total Environ. 2013, 458–460, 246–255.   

  54. Nielsen, U.N.; Ayres, E.; Wall, D.H.; Bardgett, R.D. Soil Biodiversity and Carbon Cycling: A Review and Synthesis of Studies Examining Diversity-Function Relationships. Eur. J. Soil. Sci. 2011, 62, 105–116.  

  55. Jackson, L.E.; Pascual, U.; Hodgkin, T. Utilizing and Conserving Agrobiodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2007, 121, 196–210.  

  56. Newton, P.; Civita, N.; Frankel-Goldwater, L.; Bartel, K.; Johns, C. What Is Regenerative Agriculture? A Review of Scholar and Practitioner Definitions Based on Processes and Outcomes. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 2020, 4, 194.  

  57. Schreefel, L.; Schulte, R.P.O.; De Boer, I.J.M.; Schrijver, A.P.; Van Zanten, H.H.E. Regenerative Agriculture–the Soil Is the Base. Glob. Food Secur. 2020, 26, 100404.  

  58. Davis, K.E. Extension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Overview and Assessment of Past and Current Models, and Future Prospects. J. Int. Agric. Ext. Educ. 2008, 15.

  59. Jarmul, S.; Dangour, A.D.; Green, R.; Liew, Z.; Haines, A.; Scheelbeek, P.F. Climate Change Mitigation through Dietary Change: A Systematic Review of Empirical and Modelling Studies on the Environmental Footprints and Health Effects of ‘Sustainable Diets’. Environ. Res. Lett. 2020, 15, 123014. 

  60. Fanzo, J. Healthy and Sustainable Diets and Food Systems: The Key to Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2? Food Ethics 2019, 4, 159–174.  

  61. Eme, P.; Douwes, J.; Kim, N.; Foliaki, S.; Burlingame, B. Review of Methodologies for Assessing Sustainable Diets and Potential for Development of Harmonised Indicators. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1184.  

  62. Marín-Sanleandro, P.; Gómez-García, A.M.; Blanco-Bernardeau, A.; Gil-Vázquez, J.M.; Alías-Linares, M.A. Influence of the Type and Use of Soil on the Distribution of Organic Carbon and Other Soil Properties in a Sustainable and Resilient Agropolitan System. Forests 2023, 14, 1085.  

  63. Jones, A.; Panagos, P.; Barcelo, S.; Bouraoui, F.; Bosco, C.; Dewitte, O.; Gardi, C.; Erhard, M.; Hervás, J.; Hiederer, R. The State of Soil in Europe. JRC Ref. Rep. 2012, 78. 

  64. Telo da Gama, J.; Loures, L.; López-Piñeiro, A.; Nunes, J.R. Spatial Distribution of Available Trace Metals in Four Typical Mediterranean Soils: The Caia Irrigation Perimeter Case Study. Agronomy 2021, 11, 2024.  

  65. Panagos, P.; Borrelli, P.; Poesen, J.; Meusburger, K.; Ballabio, C.; Lugato, E.; Montanarella, L.; Alewell, C. Reply to the Comment on “The New Assessment of Soil Loss by Water Erosion in Europe” by Fiener & Auerswald. Environ. Sci. Policy 2016, 57, 143–150. 

  66. Miháliková, M.; Dengiz, O. Towards More Effective Irrigation Water Usage by Employing Land Suitability Assessment for Various Irrigation Techniques. Irrig. Drain. 2019, 68, 617–628.  

  67. Prokop, G.; Jobstmann, H.; Schönbauer, A.; European Commission; Directorate-General for the Environment. Overview of Best Practices for Limiting Soil Sealing or Mitigating Its Effects in EU-27: Final Report; European Commission: Luxembourg, 2011; ISBN 978-9-27920-669-6. 

  68. Lacerda, N.B.D.; Lustosa Filho, J.F.; Blum, S.C.; Escobar, M.E.O.; Oliveira, T.S.D. Organic Matter Pools in a Fluvisol after 29 Years under Different Land Uses in an Irrigation Region in Northeast Brazil. J. Arid Environ. 2023, 208, 104861.  

  69. Bennett, E.M.; Peterson, G.D.; Gordon, L.J. Understanding Relationships among Multiple Ecosystem Services. Ecol. Lett. 2009, 12, 1394–1404.

  70. Daniel, T.C.; Muhar, A.; Arnberger, A.; Aznar, O.; Boyd, J.W.; Chan, K.M.; Costanza, R.; Elmqvist, T.; Flint, C.G.; Gobster, P.H. Contributions of Cultural Services to the Ecosystem Services Agenda. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109, 8812–8819.

  71. Montanarella, L.; Pennock, D.J.; McKenzie, N.; Badraoui, M.; Chude, V.; Baptista, I.; Mamo, T.; Yemefack, M.; Singh Aulakh, M.; Yagi, K. World’s Soils Are under Threat. Soil 2016, 2, 79–82.  

  72. Yu, C.; Han, F.; Fu, G. Effects of 7 Years Experimental Warming on Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Structure in the Northern Tibet Alpine Meadow at Three Elevations. Sci. Total Environ. 2019, 655, 814–822.  

  73. Zhong, Z.; Fu, G. Response of Soil Fungal Species, Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity to Diurnal Asymmetric Warming in an Alpine Agricultural Ecosystem. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2022, 335, 107993.  

  74. Lal, R. Sequestering Carbon and Increasing Productivity by Conservation Agriculture. J. Soil Water Conserv. 2015, 70, 55A–62A.  

  75. Minasny, B.; Malone, B.P.; McBratney, A.B.; Angers, D.A.; Arrouays, D.; Chambers, A.; Chaplot, V.; Chen, Z.-S.; Cheng, K.; Das, B.S. Soil Carbon 4 per Mille. Geoderma 2017, 292, 59–86.  

  76. Emde, D.; Hannam, K.D.; Most, I.; Nelson, L.M.; Jones, M.D. Soil Organic Carbon in Irrigated Agricultural Systems: A Meta-analysis. Glob. Change Biol. 2021, 27, 3898–3910.  

  77. Kane, D.; Solutions, LLC. Carbon Sequestration Potential on Agricultural Lands: A Review of Current Science and Available Practices; National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition Breakthrough Strategies and Solutions, LLC.: Washington, DC, USA, 2015; pp. 1–35. 

  78. Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, P.; Pirani, A.; Connors, S.L.; Péan, C.; Berger, S.; Caud, N.; Chen, Y.; Goldfarb, L.; Gomis, M.I. Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis; Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2021; p. 2. 

  79. Singh, B.P.; Cowie, A.L.; Chan, K.Y. Soil Health and Climate Change; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2011. 

  80. Bakó, G.; Molnár, Z.; Bakk, L.; Horváth, F.; Fehér, L.; Ábrám, Ö.; Morvai, E.; Biro, C.; Pápay, G.; Fűrész, A.; et al. Toward a High Spatial Resolution Aerial Monitoring Network for Nature Conservation—How Can Remote Sensing Help Protect Natural Areas? Sustainability 2021, 13, 8807.  

  81. van Oijen, M.; Bellocchi, G.; Höglind, M. Effects of Climate Change on Grassland Biodiversity and Productivity: The Need for a Diversity of Models. Agronomy 2018, 8, 14.  

  82. Bélanger, J.; Pilling, D. The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Rome, Italy, 2019; ISBN 9-25-131270-2. 

  83. Goddard, L.; Gershunov, A. Impact of El Niño on Weather and Climate Extremes. In El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2020; pp. 361–375. 

  84. Abbass, K.; Qasim, M.Z.; Song, H.; Murshed, M.; Mahmood, H.; Younis, I. A Review of the Global Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Sustainable Mitigation Measures. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022, 29, 42539–42559.  

  85. Leisner, C.P. Climate Change Impacts on Food Security-Focus on Perennial Cropping Systems and Nutritional Value. Plant Sci. 2020, 293, 110412. 

  86. Gomiero, T. Soil Degradation, Land Scarcity and Food Security: Reviewing a Complex Challenge. Sustainability 2016, 8, 281.  

  87. Khatteli, H.; Ali, R.R.; Bergametti, G.; Bouet, C.; Hachicha, M.; Hamdi-Aissa, B.; Labiadh, M.; Montoroi, J.-P.; Podwojewski, P.; Rajot, J.-L.; et al. Soils and Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. In The Mediterranean Region under Climate Change: A Scientific Update; IRD Editions: Marseille, France, 2016; p. 14. 

  88. Spinoni, J.; Vogt, J.; Naumann, G.; Carrao, H.; Barbosa, P. Towards Identifying Areas at Climatological Risk of Desertification Using the Köppen–Geiger Classification and FAO Aridity Index. Int. J. Climatol. 2015, 35, 2210–2222.  

  89. Montanarella, L.; Scholes, R.; Brainich, A. The IPBES Assessment Report on Land Degradation and Restoration; Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Bonn, Germany, 2018. 

  90. van der Esch, S. Exploring Future Changes in Land Use and Land Condition and the Impacts on Food, Water, Climate Change and Biodiversity: Scenarios for the UNCCD Global Land Outlook; PBL Publishers: The Hague, The Netherlands, 2017. 

  91. Sun, W.; Li, S.; Zhang, G.; Fu, G.; Qi, H.; Li, T. Effects of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on Soil PH in Grassland Regions on the Tibetan Plateau. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 2023, 45, e02532.  

  92. Zha, X.; Tian, Y.; Ouzhu; Fu, G. Response of Forage Nutrient Storages to Grazing in Alpine Grasslands. Front. Plant Sci. 2022, 13, 991287. 

  93. Zhang, H.; Fu, G. Responses of Plant, Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities to Grazing Vary with Pasture Seasons and Grassland Types, Northern Tibet. Land Degrad. Dev. 2021, 32, 1821–1832.  

  94. Domenech, T.; Bahn-Walkowiak, B. Transition towards a Resource Efficient Circular Economy in Europe: Policy Lessons from the EU and the Member States. Ecol. Econ. 2019, 155, 7–19.  

  95. Amelung, W.; Bossio, D.; de Vries, W.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Amundson, R.; Bol, R.; Collins, C.; Lal, R.; Leifeld, J. Towards a Global-Scale Soil Climate Mitigation Strategy. Nat. Commun. 2020, 11, 5427. 

  96. Eckert, E.; Kovalevska, O. Sustainability in the European Union: Analyzing the Discourse of the European Green Deal. J. Risk Financ. Manag. 2021, 14, 80.  

  97. Fetting, C. The European Green Deal; ESDN Report; ESDN: Vienna, Austria, 2020; p. 53. 

  98. Montanarella, L.; Panagos, P. The Relevance of Sustainable Soil Management within the European Green Deal. Land Use Policy 2021, 100, 104950.  

  99. Schebesta, H.; Candel, J.J. Game-Changing Potential of the EU’s Farm to Fork Strategy. Nat. Food 2020, 1, 586–588. 

  100. Nicastro, R.; Carillo, P. Food Loss and Waste Prevention Strategies from Farm to Fork. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5443. 

  101. Husain, N. (2024). The essentiality of implementing curriculum and activities for gender education in present education system. Shodh Sari, 03(01), 234–242.

  102. Oredein, A. O. (2024). Differential Educational Attainment among Learners: Implications for Achieving Sustainable Development Goal Four. Shodh Sari, 03(01), 31–46.

  103. Hamza, S. (2023). Exploring transversal green skills required of technology graduates for environmental sustainability. Shodh Sari, 02(04), 392–418. 

Scroll to Top