International Council for Education, Research and Training

An Evaluation of the Central Sewage System (CSS) Problem in Abuja

Mustapha, Tajudeen Dele and Nwaokwa, Patric Kelechi

Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria


The Abuja Central Sewage System (CSS) is an essential facility in the capital city. The CSS efficiency must not be compromised due to the enormous effects of sewage malfunction on the environment and its inhabitants. This research aims to study the problem of the Abuja Central Sewage System (CSS) problem, identify related issues, and provide alternative solutions. To achieve this goal, field research was undertaken in Phase 1 of the Federal Capital City (Abuja), with a questionnaire randomly administered to two hundred respondents in five (5) districts. The survey questionnaire was given to only building tenants acquainted with building services, particularly liquid waste disposal, such as the underground sewage system. The data were evaluated with descriptive statistical methods like percentages, means, and standard deviation. It was established that sanitary sewers overflowed from manholes onto streets and eventually into storm drains. The waste is not treated before being deposited into surrounding watercourses. It was also revealed that manholes release foul odors from sanitary sewers. These hazards pollute the environment and endanger public health. The study concluded that the Federal Capital City’s sanitary sewers were somewhat successful in collecting and transporting sewage. The study suggested improving service delivery efficiency through routine training in collection system operations, maintenance, and supervision, as well as integrating cutting-edge technologies like closed-circuit television into the sewer system’s maintenance program to increase the sewer efficiency system.

Keywords: Sewage; Manholes; Treatment Plant; Waste; Central Sewage System

Impact Statement

The Abuja Central Sewage System (CSS) research paper emphasizes how crucial it is to protect the environment and public health. The necessity of intervention is emphasized by highlighting problems like sewer overflow, untreated waste discharge, and offensive odors. The report gives a useful road map for improving CSS efficiency by outlining specific solutions, such as the incorporation of cutting-edge technologies like closed-circuit television. The impact of this study extends to urban infrastructure development and governance, perhaps affecting political choices outside of Abuja. This study makes a significant contribution to the protection of the environment, public health, and urban sustainability in Abuja and serves as a guide for tackling related issues in other cities.

About The Author

Mustapha, Tajudeen Dele is a Nigerian architect with a Ph.D. in environmental design from Universiti Sains Malaysia. He is a chief lecturer and researcher. He has held various positions, including Head of the Department of Architectural Technology and Dean of the School of Environmental Studies at the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. 

Dr. Mustapha is a corporate member of the Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA) and is licensed by the Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON). He is also a fellow of the Chartered Institute of Public Diplomacy and Management (CIPDM).

He has authored numerous papers in reputable journals and co-authored the book “Introduction to Building Construction and Architectural Detailing: A Practical Approach.” His research focuses on creating comfortable environments and low-energy buildings, addressing global challenges such as indoor air quality, climate change, and low energy.


Arc. Nwaokwa, Patrick Kelechi holds a Bachelor of Architecture and an MSc in Environmental Resources Management. He completed his national service at the Department of Architecture, Kwara Polytechnic, Ilorin, in 1983/84 and subsequently worked as a lecturer in the same department. He joined the Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa in 1988 and retired in 2023 as a Chief Lecturer.

He served as the Head of the Department of Architectural Technology and later held the position of the Director of the Physical Planning and Development Division at Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.  He also served as the Vice Chairman of the Nigeria Institute of Architects, Nasarawa State Chapter.

He is a corporate member of the Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA) and was licensed to practice by the Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON). He has authored several papers in learned journals and co-authored the book “Introduction to Building Construction and Architectural Detailing: A Practical Approach.” 

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