International Council for Education, Research and Training

Exploring Managerial Entrepreneurial Competencies Framework for Technical College Programs

Muhammad, Abubakar Ibrahim*1, and Zahradeen, Muaz Murtala1

Usman, Anas Garba1, and Kamin, Yusri Bin2

1Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi Kano Nigeria


2 Technical and Engineering Education Department, School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


One of the challenges of technical education in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, is the lack of an appropriate entrepreneurial framework for the content of the technical college curriculum. The purpose of this study was to explore the entrepreneurial competencies for technical college programs in Nigeria. This study was guided by qualitative approach through document analysis and semi-structured interview with 15 participants selected purposively and eleven Journal Articles were analyzed. The empirical findings from semi-structured interviews confirm the theoretical findings in document analysis. This study found several managerial entrepreneurial competencies in document analysis and interviews, eventually analyzed thematically. Themes include: Business plan, Decision making, technical know-how, Interpersonal relationship and Communication. The study analyzed only 11 documents and conducted 15 interviews, so the conclusions drawn from these sources depend on the authenticity of the information provided by the participants. The study found that managerial entrepreneurial competencies are worth for inclusion into the technical college programs curriculum in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the curriculum needs to be reviewed to ensure that they meet the educational changes such as global trends, 21st century education policies and Industrial Revolution 4.0, which now become a worldwide phenomenon. 

Keywords: Industrial Revolution 4.0, entrepreneurial framework, entrepreneurial competencies, 21st century.

Impact statement

It is clear that technical and vocational education is the most reliable tool to reduce poverty, unemployment, eradicate disease, among other example in developing countries. Thus, in Nigeria, the purpose of establishing technical colleges is to address the issues of job creation, self reliance and skills development. However, most technical college students graduate without the required entrepreneurial skills. Likewise, the gap between college-taught curriculum and the skills required in small businesses and enterprises is a main hindrance to SMEs growth. Therefore, there is need for a new school curriculum that will adapt the teaching of entrepreneurship, which will be the solution to the current problem of unemployment. This research examined the important elements of managerial entrepreneurial competencies that are suitable for integration into technical college curriculum in Nigeria as required for self-employment. In essence, this research has practical implications for of Nigerian Government; policy makers, curriculum developers, administrators, lecturers and students.

About Author

Abubakar Ibrahim Muhammad PhD

Dynamic, qualified and knowledgeable care and technical educator who is attuned to the need of his students, with 28 years’ experience in education sector. Always keep pace with the demand of the education sector. Excellent curriculum interpreter, implementer and very good team working skills. A PhD holder in Technical and Vocational Education from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; MSc. Advanced Materials from Bolton University, United Kingdom; B. Tech. Industrial & Technical Education, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria and Nigeria certificate of Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gombe. Working with Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi from 2008 to Date as a Senior Lecturer. Principal Assistant Education Officer (PAEO) with Kano State Science and Technical Schools Board, between 1994 and 2008. Developing a plethora of excellent experience in scientific research and innovation, conducting an excellent research in technical education; entrepreneurship education and competencies and how to sell the new innovation in the world market for the benefit of humanity. In addition I am scrupulous and a career driving with determined approach to meeting targets and team organization.

Has attended national and international conferences, workshops and seminars. Likewise, has many publications in local and international reputable journals. Also participating in community and voluntary work.


  • Work as an active committee member rigorously toward the successful approval of undergraduate degree programme affiliation with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria.
  • As a Metalwork Technology Department of Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi Examination Officer, I transform the exams office from traditional record method to IT system. 
  • As a Head Technical Drawing Department, Kano Day Science College I introduced weekly extra lesson for the final year students due to the worse performance in Senior Secondary Examination Certificate, which lead to successful pass at credit level of over 72% in 2006, 2007 & 2008.
  • As part of voluntary work, I am the initiator and founder of community school in Badawa Kano.
  • Funding member and Ex-Chairman School Based Management Committee, Government Girls Secondary School Badawa
  • Chairman School Based Management Committee, Government Junior Secondary School Badawa (Co-education).       

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